bodybuilding squat

Squat Analysis


Move down until the thighs are almost past parallel to the floor. Extend the knees and the hips until the legs are straight. Repeat this motion.

Joint Actions

  • Knee Extension
  • Hip Extension
  • Ankle Plantar flexion

Target areas



Target Muscles/Prime movers

  • Quadriceps
  • Gluteus Maximus
  • Gastrocnemius

Attachments of Target Muscles

Rectus femoris: Iliac crest to Tibia via patella

Vastus Lateralis: Femur to Tibia via patella

Vastus Intermedius: Femur to Tibia via patella

Vastus Medialis: Femur to Tibia via patella

Gluteus Maximus: Ilia crest, sacrum and coccyx to Femur and iliotibial band

Gluteus Medius: Ilium to Femur

Gluteus Minimus: Ilium to Femur

Gastrocnemius: Femur to Calcaneus

Assistant muscles


  • Hip adductors
  • Hip abductors
  • Core Muscles

Main focus of exercise

Working the quadriceps and hamstrings

Different types of squats

  • Barbell squats
  1. Maintain head forward, back straight and feet flat on the floor; identical distribution of weight through front of the foot and heel.
  2. Knees should aim in a similar direction as feet all the way through movement.
  3. Hip and ankle flexibility is significant for safety and execution in this movement. Stress placed on the knee and lower back.

Barbell squat on Back: Even distribution; working quadriceps and hamstrings

Barbell squat on Front: Main focus of exercise on quadriceps

  • Dumbell squats
  1. Stand with dumbbells gripped to the side.
  2. Maintain head forward, back straight, chest elevated, arms directly to sides, and feet flat on the floor; equal distribution of weight through forefoot and heel.
  3. Knees should face in the same direction as feet during the movement.
  • 45 degree Leg press
  1. Take a seat on machine with back on cushioned back support.
  2. Position feet on platform. Extend hips and knees.
  3. Free lever and grip handles to sides.
  4. Let platform down by flexing hips and knees until hips are entirely flexed. Return by extending knees and hips. Repeat.

Leg press: feet high

Main focus is on Hamstrings and Gluteus muscles

Secondary focus on Quadriceps

Leg press: feet low

Main focus is on Quadriceps and Calves

Secondary focus on Hamstrings

  • Barbell lunge
  1. Lunge to the front with first leg. Place heal then forefoot.
  2. Lower down the body by flexing knee and hip of front leg until knee of rear leg is almost touching the floor.
  3. Go back to original stationary position by powerfully extending the hip and knee of the forward leg. Repeat by alternating lunge with opposite leg.
  4. Keep the torso erect throughout lunge; flexible hip flexors are important. The leading knee must point same direction as foot during the lunge.

A short lunge emphasizes the Quadriceps.

A long lunge emphasizes the Gluteus Maximus

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